M-Theory

The Theory of Everything
(The Standard Model of Physics)

Not so long ago we saw the universe as particles moving in space, then ‘String theory’ was introduced to better explain the organization of the universe, but more recently this has evolved into ‘M theory’.

In standard particle physics, particles are thought to be points moving through space, tracing out a line known as the ‘World Line‘. For the different interactions that we see in nature to occur there must be more possible degrees of freedom (dimensions) for a particle to move in than just their position and velocity. Such dimensions could be mass, electric charge or spin. The standard model of the universe was designed around Quantum Field Theory (QFT), which allows theories to be developed and be consistent with quantum mechanics and special relativity.These theories successfully described three of the four known interactions in nature (Electromagnetism, Strong and Weak nuclear force). They also described the interaction between electromagnetism and weak nuclear force (Electroweak Theory). The fourth interaction (Gravity), which is described in Einsteins theory of General Relitivity does not seem to fit. When the rules of QTF are applied to general relativity the results seen are impossible. For example; the force between two gravitons would be infinite, which can’t happen.

String Theory GraphicString Theory replaces the range of different particles with a single fundamental building block. This is known as a ‘string’. These strings can be open ended or ‘tied at the ends’ forming a loop or ring. As a string moves through time it traces out a sheet or a tube, depending on which type of string it is. Strings can vibrate freely. Different vibrations create the different particle types. For example; one vibrational mode makes a string appear as an electron, another could make a photon, even a graviton. String theory received a lot of attention because it could describe the interaction of two gravitons, whereas the previous theories could not. String theory also has the necessary dimensions to describe other interactions. This gave hope for a new theory which would unify all particles and forces, ‘The Theory of Everything’

The known subatomic particles are classified depending upon the way in which they spin. The two types are called Bosons and Fermions. Bosons carry forces, and fermions make up the matter of which we are made. Originally String Theory did not describe Fermions, only Bosons. This meant matter particles were not included. To obtain a theory which includes both Fermions and Bosons, Supersymmetry was used and this gave us Superstring theory. The problem with this is that five different theories developed and only three of them had no mathematical inconsistencies. For two of the theories the fundamental object is a closed string, while in another, open strings are used. Two more theorys were developed by mixing the best parts of Bosonic strings and Superstrings, these are Heterotic String Theories. Studying these theories was problematic, as we did not have all the necessary tools to test all possible values of the parameters involved.
We are all used to the idea of three dimensions (3D), but time is also a dimension. This makes four dimensions that we can perceive. String Theory predicts that space-time has ten dimensions, not four. It is thought that the ‘extra’ dimensions are tightly packed on complex shapes known as Orbifolds and Calabi-Yau Manifolds. These dimensions, or degrees of freedom are such things as charge on an electron. It is believed that the charge arises because the electron is moving in one of these other dimensions.

String Loop representation of M-Theory

Recently techniques have been developed to thoroughly explore the theories. This led to the development of M-Theory. This theory describes the previous five theories of superstrings as just different aspects of the same theory. M-Theory seems to tell us that there is another dimension, bringing the total to eleven. It is said that M-Theory should be seen as an eleven dimensional theory that looks ten dimensional at some of the points in its parameters. Now this gave us a new fundamental object, Branes (membranes). These Branes look like strings if the eleventh dimension is curls into a small circle (like looking at a tube from the end).

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9 Comments

  1. Anthony

    I love this theory, it goes to show the universe is full of strange yet wonderful things yet to be told.

    Also i made this website my homepage, you offically impressed me greatly.

  2. Dov Henis

    2010 Rethink Evolution:

    Rethink Evolution
    On Black Holes, Biosphere(s) And All Mass-Formats
    Cosmic Evolution Simplified

    (a recapitulation)

    A. A black future
    http://www.sciencenews.org/view/feature/id/50326/title/A_black_future
    Without destroying the Earth, the Large Hadron Collider might help humans explore the cosmos

    B. On The Origin And Nature Of Cosmic Evolution:
    It Is Space-Distance, Not Space-Time.
    Life’s Is The Ubiquitous Cosmic Evolution Mode.

    The mode of a gene’s response to organism-culture’s feedback signal, i.e. “replicate without change” or “replicate with change” in case of proven augmented energy constrainment by the offspring, is the mode of Life’s normal evolution, which is the mode of evolution universally.

    Genes’ Expression Modification
    http://www.the-scientist.com/community/posts/list/200/122.page#3649

    Again, the scope of of genes lifehood is not just the lifehood of genes.

    Genes, and Life in general, are but one of the forms of mass, of constrained energy formats. The lifehood of genes is the foundation of the subject of evolutionary biology, which is a major component of the subject of life, which is a minute component of the subject of evolution of the universe, which is the subject for which humanity seeks a unified field theory.

    Since the big-bang resolution of E/m superposition ALL the energy of the universe is destined for the galactic clusters expansion plus laying down of the gravity natrix for the eventual cosmic impansion, and ALL the mass is destined to revert to energy for these ends. The mass-to-energy reversion is resisted by the mass, this resistance being the archtype of selection for survival by all materials, including life. This resistance is due, exciting to us, to the fact that – as we know from everyday experience – formation of mass requires investment of energy, that dissipates when the mass disintegrates. And as we also know from everyday experience all energy forms other than gravity end up eventually as gravity energy. This is expected since ALL the contents of the universe are manifestations of the gravity energy freed at Inflation.

    And again, a unified field theory is sought since unlike the evergrowing list of specific science/technology divisions drawn by the “scientists” trade-unions like the AAAS, the universe and Earth evolve as an integrated intertwined interrelated tangled whole and not as a collection of individual divisions.

    C. Updated Physical Evolution Defintion

    1. Three present definitions of physical evolution, at

    http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/evolution

    – a process of change in a certain direction.

    – a theory that the various types of animals and plants have their origin in other preexisting types and that the distinguishable differences are due to modifications in their successive generations, and also the process described by this theory.

    – a process in which the whole universe is a progression of interrelated phenomena.

    2. Suggested updated physical evolution definition, of Life’s normal evolution and universal energy-mass evolution.

    a theory, and the process described by it, that the whole universe changes in a progression of interrelated phenomena of mass formats attaining temporary augmented energy constraint in their successive generations with energy drained from other mass formats, to temporarily postpone, survive, reverting of their mass to the cosmic energy fueling the galactic clusters expansion.

    D. Black holes of ALL sizes are constrained-energy mass formats. Like biosphere(s) they require energy to survive temporarily, to avoid as long as possible their energy used to fuel the ongoing cosmic expansion.

    Dov Henis
    (Comments From The 22nd Century)
    03.2010 Updated Life Manifest
    http://www.the-scientist.com/community/posts/list/54.page#5065
    28Dec09 Implications Of E=Total[m(1 + D)]
    http://www.the-scientist.com/community/posts/list/184.page#4587
    Gravity Is The Monotheism Of The Cosmos
    http://www.the-scientist.com/community/posts/list/260/122.page#4887

  3. Dov Henis

    Embarassingly obvious TOE, expanding the horizon beyond Darwin And Einstein:

    Theory Of Everything Without Strings Attached.
    Embarassingly Obvious And Simple.
    See the signature links.

    Life’s Genesis Was Not Cells But First Gene’s Self Reproduction.
    Life Is Just Another Mass Format.

    Since July 5 1997 I have developed and been proposing the following scenario of life’s genesis:

    * Life’s genesis was not cell(s), but the self reproduction of yet uncelled ungenomed gene(s).

    * There was NOT any “Pre-History Of Life” evolving in an archaic pre-modern life cell.

    * Cells were definitely NOT life’s genesis. Cells were products of evolution of Earth’s primal organisms, of Earth’s first stratum organisms, the RNA genes that have always been and still are running the show of life, the energy-storing biosphere survival, since Earth life’s day one.

    * A gene’s self reproduction was distinctly an evolutionary, enhanced energy constraint event, above the earlier, random, radiated-energy-induced genes formations.

    * Every evolutionary step is inherently an event of an enhanced energy constraint.

    * Genomes, RNA and DNA, are functional organs evolved by the primary RNA genes. Cell membranes are also functional organs evolved by the primary RNA gene.

    * Life is but one of the many many mass formats in the universe, and its evolution is driven as the evolution of all cosmic mass formats, to gain temporary enhanced energy constraint, i.e. to survive as long as possible.

    Dov Henis
    (Comments From The 22nd Century)
    03.2010 Updated Life Manifest
    http://www.the-scientist.com/community/posts/list/54.page#5065
    Cosmic Evolution Simplified
    http://www.the-scientist.com/community/posts/list/240/122.page#4427
    Gravity Is The Monotheism Of The Cosmos
    http://www.the-scientist.com/community/posts/list/260/122.page#4887

    PS:
    This Theory Of Everything, with definition of evolution, covers also ALL aspects of anthropology. DH
    =============

    TOE: Religion Or Science?

    (Fwd from the-scientist.com:)

    I.

    [quote=BobTS1162939] This is the Theory Of Everything In A Nutshell (TOEIANS):

    Basic construction of the universe: 1. Particles 2. Strings 3. Frames.

    Each particle has string. They combine with each other into quantum and physical objects.

    Particles’ travel along their strings appear to us as: 1. Gravity. 2. Properties. 3. Forces.

    String-particle travels/lives within a frame seen as: 1. Waves. 2. Feelings 3. Influence.

    Time is a one dimensional string whose constant value is 9. The universe is constructed on the number 3. Time moves outward dragging space with it. This outward expansion causes space which is a string to distort / stretch which we see as repairs / deterioration / aging / etc.. If the strings were decreasing we would see the reverse. Things would essentially become younger until they simply disappeared as opposing to dying / being not repairable as we see / experience now. The development of language and the effort to define things means particles / strings / frames have different names depending on the discipline.[/quote]

    II. My comment

    A) Since Life is, by our sensory conception, a virtual reality affair, religion is a legitimate virtual reality tool for going through life. But I am not religious. My senses do not become affected by the above TOEIANS. I embarassingly admit that hard as I try I am unable to comprehend the above TOEIANS.

    B) My own conception of TOE is scientific, not religious, based strictly on data recorded and observed, of ubiquitous cosmic phenomena. And in presenting my TOE conception I do not deal with mechanisms but with the base processes.

    Dov Henis
    (Comments From The 22nd Century)

  4. constantine

    whats your thoughts on standing wave theory, whare reletivity can happliy deal with gravity unmolested.

  5. James

    Thanks guys, theres a question about theory’s on my assignment and this article has TONS OF theorys. BTW im very intersted in this topic as well.

  6. gt

    I respectfully disagree with this theory.

  7. RMCybernetics

    Yes, Your subconcious mind!

  8. Well Rested

    There is something that we can’t see that knows our every thoughts

  9. RSC

    Interesting that there are 10 + 1 dimensions theorised.. mimics the design with the Hebrew Kabbalah sephiroth system (10 states of existence) + 1 (hidden) – No I am not a religious kook – but I do look at links between very old known descriptions of how the universe is built, (primarily religious in nature) – and new physics!!

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