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# Useful Facts & Formula

## Online Calculators

Heater Power and Temeperature

## Atmospheric and Geological Data

#### Fair Weather Electric Field

130V/m – 3×10-12 A/m2 (1530 Amps Total)

#### Voltage of Upper Atmosphere

+300kV relative to Earth

5×109 J/m3

540,000 coulombs

#### Maximum vertical field strength in a thunderstorm

150kV/m (average=10kV/m)

## Electromagnetic Formulae and Constants

#### The speed of light in a vacuum

c = 299,792,458 m/s (~ 186,282.4 miles per second)

#### Magnetic Field of Solenoids (coils)

B – Magnetic Field
oIo – Magnetic Flux Density
µ0 = 4π x 10-7 Hm-1 – Permittivity of free space
N – Number of turns
a – Area

B=µ0NI
Flux per Turn, oIo = µ0NIπr2
Total Flux, oIo =µ0NIaNl

Coulombs Law
F = k (q1q2 / r2)

Permeability of Free Space
µ0 = 4π x 10-7

Permittivity of Free Space
1/(c2 µ0) =  = 8.85418782 × 10-12

#### Frequency and Wavelength calculations of EM waves

λ is wavelength
T is the period

Frequency, f = 1 / T

Velocity, v = f λ

#### Inductance Calculations

A self inductance of 1 Henry will produce an emf (electromotive force) of 1 Volt when the current (I) changes at a rate of 1A/s
V = -L(dI/dt)

Self Inductance, L = µ0N2la

Mutual Inductance, M = µ0N1N2la = k(L1L2)1/2
The value of coupling coefficient (k) depends upon how much of the flux passes through the coils.

## Properties of Subatomic Particles

#### Properties of an Electron

Charge = 1.60217646 × 10-19 coulombs
Mass = 0.51 MeV/c2 (9.11 × 10-28 g)
Diameter = < 10-18 m

#### Properties of a Neutron

Charge = 0 coulombs
Mass = 939.6 MeV/c2 (1.67×10-24 g)
Diameter = ?

#### Properties of a Proton

Charge = 1.602 × 10-19 coulombs
Mass = 938.3 MeV/c2 (1.6726 × 10-24 g)
Diameter = 10-15 m

## Table of the Elements in Order of Conductivity

 KEY Metal SemiMetal NonMetal
 Element Atomic Number Electrical Conductivity(x106omg-¹cm-¹) Silver (Ag) 47 62.9 Copper (Cu) 29 60.7 Gold (Au) 79 48.8 Rubidium (Rb) 37 47.8 Aluminium (Al) 13 37.7 Calcium (Ca) 20 31.3 Berylliun (Be) 4 25 Rhodium (Rh) 45 23 Magnesium (Mg) 12 22.4 Iridium (Ir) 77 21.3 Sodium (Na) 11 20.1 Tungsten (W) 74 18.2 Cobalt (Co) 27 17.9 Molybdenum (Mo) 42 17.3 Zinc (Zn) 30 16.9 Potassium (K) 19 16.4 Ruthenium (Ru) 44 14.9 Cadmium (Cd) 48 14.7 Nickel (Ni) 28 14.6 Osmium (Os) 76 12 Litium (Li) 3 11.7 Iron (Fe) 26 11.2 Palladium (Pa) 46 10 Platinum (Pt) 78 9.4 Tin (Sn) 50 8.7 Tantalum (Ta) 73 8.1 Selenium (Se) 34 8 Chromium (Cr) 24 7.9 Thorium (Th) 90 7.1 Niobium (Nb) 41 6.6 Rhenium (Re) 75 5.8 Proctactinium (Pa) 91 5.6 Thallium (Tl) 81 5.6 Cesium (Cs) 55 5.3 Strontium (Sr) 38 5.0 Lead (Pb) 82 4.8 Vandim (V) 23 4.0 Arsenic (As) 33 3.8 Yttbrium (Yb) 70 3.7 Uranium (U) 92 3.6 Indium (In) 49 3.4 Hafnium (Hf) 72 3.4 Barium (Ba) 56 2.8 Titanium (Ti) 22 2.6 Antimony (Sb) 51 2.6 Zirconium (Zr) 40 2.3 Promethium (Pm) 61 2 Lanthanum (La) 57 1.9 Gallium (Ga) 31 1.8 Yttrium (Y) 39 1.8 Neodymium (Nd) 60 1.6 Praseodymium (Pr) 59 1.5 Lutetium (Lu) 71 1.5 Scandium (Sc) 21 1.5 Cerium (Ce) 58 1.4 Thulium (Tm) 69 1.3 Erbium (Er) 68 1.2 Samarium (Sm) 62 1.1 Europium (Eu) 63 1.1 Dysprosium (Dy) 66 1.1 Holmium (Ho) 67 1.1 Radium (Ra) 88 1.0 Mercury (Hg) 80 1.0 Terbium (Tb) 65 0.9 Bismuth (Bi) 83 0.9 Gadolinium (Gd) 64 0.8 Neptunium (Np) 93 0.8 Polonium (Po) 84 0.7 Plutonium (Pu) 94 0.7 Americium (Am) 95 0.7 Manganese 25 0.5 Carbon (C) 6 0.07 Technetium (Tc) 43 0.001 Tellurium (Te) 52 2×10-4 Silicon (Si) 14 4×10-4 Germanium (Ge) 32 4×10-4 Iodine (I) 53 10-11 Boron (B) 5 5×10-12 Sulfur (S) 16 5×10-16 Phosphorus (P) 15 10-16 Bromine (Br) 35 10-16 Francium (Fr) 87 No Data Actinium (Ac) 89 Curium (Cm) 96 Berkelium (Bk) 97 Californium (Cf) 98 Einsteinium (Es) 99 Fermium (Fm) 10 Mendelevium (Md) 101 Nobleium (No) 102 Lawrencium (Lr) 103 Unnilquanium (Unq) 104 Unnilpentium (Unp) 105 Unnilhexium (Unh) 106 Unnilseptium (Uns) 107 Unniloctium (Uno) 108 Unnilenium (Une) 109 Hydrogen (H) 1 No Data Helium (He) 2 Nitrogen (N) 7 Oxygen (O) 8 Fluorine (F) 9 Neon (Ne) 10 Chlorine (Cl) 17 Argon (Ar) 18 Krypton (Kr) 36 Xenon (Xe) 54 Astatine (At) 85 Radon (Rn) 86