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Useful Facts & Formula

Atmospheric and Geological Data

Fair Weather Electric Field

130V/m - 3x10-12 A/m2 (1530 Amps Total)

Voltage of Upper Atmosphere

+300kV relative to Earth

Average Energy Density of Ball Lightning

5x109 J/m3

Net negative charge of Earth

540,000 coulombs

Maximum vertical field strength in a thunderstorm

150kV/m (average=10kV/m)

Electromagnetic Formulae and Constants

The speed of light in vacuum

c = 299,792,458 m/s (~ 186,282.4 miles per second)

Magnetic Field of Solenoids (coils)

B - Magnetic Field
oIo - Magnetic Flux Density
µ0 = 4π x 10-7 Hm-1 - Permittivity of free space
N - Number of turns
a - Area

B=µ0NI
Flux per Turn, oIo = µ0NIπr2
Total Flux, oIo =µ0NIaNl

Coulombs Law
F = k (q1q2 / r2)

Permeability of Free Space
µ0 = 4π x 10-7

Permittivity of Free Space
1/(c2 µ0) =  = 8.85418782 × 10-12

Frequency and Wavelength calculations of EM waves

λ is wavelength 
T is the period

Frequency, f = 1 / T

Velocity, v = f λ

Inductance Calculations

A self inductance of 1 Henry will produce an emf (electromotive force) of 1 Volt when the current (I) changes at a rate of 1A/s
V = -L(dI/dt)

Self Inductance, L = µ0N2la

Mutual Inductance, M = µ0N1N2la = k(L1L2)1/2
The value of coupling coefficient (k) depends upon how much of the flux passes through the coils.

Properties of Subatomic Particles

Properties of an Electron

Charge = 1.60217646 × 10-19 coulombs
Mass = 0.51 MeV/c2 (9.11 × 10-28 g)
Diameter = < 10-18 m

Properties of a Neutron

Charge = 0 coulombs
Mass = 939.6 MeV/c2 (1.67×10-24 g)
Diameter = ?

Properties of a Proton

Charge = 1.602 × 10-19 coulombs
Mass = 938.3 MeV/c2 (1.6726 × 10-24 g)
Diameter = 10-15 m

 

Table of the Elements in Order of Conductivity

KEY
Metal
SemiMetal
NonMetal
Element
Atomic Number
Electrical Conductivity(x106omg-¹cm-¹)
Silver (Ag)
47
62.9
Copper (Cu)
29
60.7
Gold (Au)
79
48.8
Rubidium (Rb)
37
47.8
Aluminium (Al)
13
37.7
Calcium (Ca)
20
31.3
Berylliun (Be)
4
25
Rhodium (Rh)
45
23
Magnesium (Mg)
12
22.4
Iridium (Ir)
77
21.3
Sodium (Na)
11
20.1
Tungsten (W)
74
18.2
Cobalt (Co)
27
17.9
Molybdenum (Mo)
42
17.3
Zinc (Zn)
30
16.9
Potassium (K)
19
16.4
Ruthenium (Ru)
44
14.9
Cadmium (Cd)
48
14.7
Nickel (Ni)
28
14.6
Osmium (Os)
76
12
Litium (Li)
3
11.7
Iron (Fe)
26
11.2
Palladium (Pa)
46
10
Platinum (Pt)
78
9.4
Tin (Sn)
50
8.7
Tantalum (Ta)
73
8.1
Selenium (Se)
34
8
Chromium (Cr)
24
7.9
Thorium (Th)
90
7.1
Niobium (Nb)
41
6.6
Rhenium (Re)
75
5.8
Proctactinium (Pa)
91
5.6
Thallium (Tl)
81
5.6
Cesium (Cs)
55
5.3
Strontium (Sr)
38
5.0
Lead (Pb)
82
4.8
Vandim (V)
23
4.0
Arsenic (As)
33
3.8
Yttbrium (Yb)
70
3.7
Uranium (U)
92
3.6
Indium (In)
49
3.4
Hafnium (Hf)
72
3.4
Barium (Ba)
56
2.8
Titanium (Ti)
22
2.6
Antimony (Sb)
51
2.6
Zirconium (Zr)
40
2.3
Promethium (Pm)
61
2
Lanthanum (La)
57
1.9
Gallium (Ga)
31
1.8
Yttrium (Y)
39
1.8
Neodymium (Nd)
60
1.6
Praseodymium (Pr)
59
1.5
Lutetium (Lu)
71
1.5
Scandium (Sc)
21
1.5
Cerium (Ce)
58
1.4
Thulium (Tm)
69
1.3
Erbium (Er)
68
1.2
Samarium (Sm)
62
1.1
Europium (Eu)
63
1.1
Dysprosium (Dy)
66
1.1
Holmium (Ho)
67
1.1
Radium (Ra)
88
1.0
Mercury (Hg)
80
1.0
Terbium (Tb)
65
0.9
Bismuth (Bi)
83
0.9
Gadolinium (Gd)
64
0.8
Neptunium (Np)
93
0.8
Polonium (Po)
84
0.7
Plutonium (Pu)
94
0.7
Americium (Am)
95
0.7
Manganese
25
0.5
Carbon (C)
6
0.07
Technetium (Tc)
43
0.001
Tellurium (Te)
52
2x10e-4
Silicon (Si)
14
4x10e-4
Germanium (Ge)
32
4x10e-4
Iodine (I)
53
10e-11
Boron (B)
5
5x10e-12
Sulfur (S)
16
5x10e-16
Phosphorus (P)
15
10e-16
Bromine (Br)
35
10e-16
Francium (Fr)
87
No Data
Actinium (Ac)
89
Curium (Cm)
96
Berkelium (Bk)
97
Californium (Cf)
98
Einsteinium (Es)
99
Fermium (Fm)
10
Mendelevium (Md)
101
Nobleium (No)
102
Lawrencium (Lr)
103
Unnilquanium (Unq)
104
Unnilpentium (Unp)
105
Unnilhexium (Unh)
106
Unnilseptium (Uns)
107
Unniloctium (Uno)
108
Unnilenium (Une)
109
Hydrogen (H)
1
No Data
Helium (He)
2
Nitrogen (N)
7
Oxygen (O)
8
Fluorine (F)
9
Neon (Ne)
10
Chlorine (Cl)
17
Argon (Ar)
18
Krypton (Kr)
36
Xenon (Xe)
54
Astatine (At)
85
Radon (Rn)
86

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